(You may want to read my essays in order.)
Tipping Points 4
April 7, 2010
The Emperor Has No Clothes
Will Allen was the keynote speaker at the MOFGA (Maine Organic Farmers and Growers Association) Common Ground Fair in September 2009. I would have gone to hear him rain or shine. His 2008 book THE WAR ON BUGS is a history of agricultural and home-use chemicals in the United States. Allen tells this ugly story to spotlight the Emperor’s nakedness: our society does not have a mechanism to protect people from the excesses of the market. Corporations, acting rationally in their own best interests, are making irrational decisions that adversely affect everyone.
The historical process Allen describes is present in the development of most American industries, but if we look at just the agricultural and home-use chemical industry, we can see clearly how irrationality has replaced rationality, how we are all, including those making decisions within this industry, being massively poisoned. Allen exposes how the modern web of players—corporate industry, scientists in academia, media, politicians, and the government organizations whose charters are to protect citizens—cooperate to relentlessly and, so far, successfully push the products of this industry.
Allen tells how the loss of nourishing soil fertility begins in Europe alongside the birth of the capitalistic paradigm. The landgrab enclosure movement of 1400-1500 halts the use of the common lands; forces large numbers of peasants to relocate to cities, which makes their labor available for industry; and allows, for a few individuals at the top of the society, the acquisition of both land and cheap labor. The stage–designed by those with the cultural power to change the laws and to control the policing mechanisms–is set now for agricultural profit taking and the accumulation of capital. Productivity, however, declines (3-4).
This process of careless large-scale monocrop farming is duplicated in America, except for a small group of mostly small, northern, self-sufficient yeoman farmers (3-15). Rich men exhausted land fertility and moved to new land–which was, often, given to land companies for free or for a few cents an acre by the government in charge (21-22). For instance, in 1749 a land grant from King George II helped organize The Ohio Company. By 1792, after the Revolution, this land company controlled 6,700,000 acres of land along the Ohio River, making George Washington, one of this land company’s leaders, one of the richest men in America (6).
By the early 1800s, soil fertility on large-scale farms was devastated (13). But, the first chemical quick fix was discovered. Peruvian bird guano, mined by slaves and prisoners, was imported in the late 1820s–until supplies were exhausted in the late 1850s (25-26). Next, fertilizer merchants created, manufactured, and sold, with relentless, repetitive advertising campaigns, attempted copies of the natural guano (30-31).
So, writes Allen, the stage is now set for the seemingly benign and cheap chemical fix for ruined land, for pest control on monocrops, and for the promise of the reduction of labor costs. But, the actual price was and is the continued degradation of the land and of the food since, while these farmers produced cheaper food, this food was of poorer quality and contained poisons (139).
Also, the developing commercial fertilizer industry allowed the continued acquisition of land by large-scale commercial farms since the process whereby small farmers who could not compete lost their land accelerated (46). Additionally, large-scale farmers had political power. They could and did control access to the developing transportation systems bringing food to markets that were becoming increasingly centralized in cities (66-67).
The next set of fertilizers, continues Allen, are the waste products of industry: sodium nitrate from salt mining; arsenic and lead pesticides from iron and copper smelting, fabric dyeing, and paint manufacturing; cyanide gas from ammonium-cyanide production; natural gas and hydrogen used to make nitrogen for fertilizers, from gasoline or coke manufacturing; and fluorine from uranium mining. So, as time passed, our food, more and more, was grown with industrial wastes (xxv-xxvi).
But, what Allen is able to show by looking so closely at the history of this industry is the pattern that evolves for American industry formation. What evolves alongside the markets for these waste products—and which still exists–is a top-down imposition of junk science. Industry endows academic “research” departments and laboratories to support the use of industrial waste products. Academia ignores actual data from the field that does not support the new message. Industry organizes relentless advertising campaigns and heavily invests in the media, like farm journals, which promote the claims of the junk science that sells the waste product. Industry controls politically the government mechanisms that should be protecting citizens. And, anyone who protests or offers actual scientific proof that the junk science is flawed is ridiculed and/or run out of the arena (35-39, 68-73, 77-79, 82-91).
This industry knows exactly how dangerous these chemicals are to human health because most of these chemicals (fluorines, carbonates, organophosphates, bromines, pyrethrum powder, and rotenone) were extensively tested during the war years. The U.S. Army, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), the USDA, and the “dominant chemical companies on the American side” tested thousands of old and new chemicals for their toxic potential during the war years” (131). And, the Nazis and the cartel of companies known as I. G. Farben “experimented with all the known chemicals on concentration-camp victims throughout World War II” (129). Yet the legal process to ban chemicals in America is limited to fights to ban a single chemical, rather than classes of chemicals, and this industry wages all out war to prevent any chemical, no matter how dangerous, from being banned 235).
The ugly truth is that these chemicals either do not get regulated or, when regulated, are not policed adequately. Arsenic, a heavy metal that is acutely toxic, is still in agricultural use today and will have a continued presence in agricultural soils for up to 100 years (124). Arsenic causes cancer, lung and stomach damage, and serious debilitation to people or animals exposed to application drift (233).
Methyl bromide has been scheduled for banning for ten years, but politically powerful large-scale strawberry, grape, and fruit farmers in California and Florida successfully obtained special-exemption uses in 2007 and 2008. This chemical has already caused serious environmental degradation from aquifer to ozone. In humans it causes “mutations, tumors, and monstrous birth defects” and is “incredibly lethal in very small doses so that pest resistance does not develop” (233-234, 244).
Many banned chemicals, like DDT, suspended in 1972, creep back into patented chemical formulas (Kelthane) as part of the secret “inerts” ingredients. This company was not fined by the government (175).
Bigger and bigger farms—which grow through the logic of unregulated capitalism–means more and more chemicals are dumped into the environment and onto our food. Surely we can recognize, thanks to Allen’s work, that the Emperor is naked, that there is a terrible flaw in our society. Surely we can understand the history Allen charts between these abusive, needless practices and the growth of our own illnesses and deaths. Surely the tipping point of change must be nearing where we all support our regional networks of small farmers who produce such glorious, healthy, life-sustaining food.